Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Claus Nielsen

Language: English

Pages: 464

ISBN: 019960603X

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Animal Evolution provides a comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary interrelationships and myriad diversity of the Animal Kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings which makes it possible to follow the fate of single blastomeres all the way to early organogenesis. Until recently, the information from analyses of gene sequences has tended to produce myriads of quite diverging trees. However, the latest generation of molecular methods, using many genes, expressed sequence tags, and even whole genomes, has brought a new stability to the field. For the first time this book brings together the information from these varied fields, and demonstrates that it is indeed now possible to build a phylogenetic tree from a combination of both morphology and gene sequences.

This thoroughly revised third edition of Animal Evolution brings the subject fully up to date, especially in light of the latest advances in molecular techniques. The book is generously illustrated throughout with finely detailed line drawings and clear diagrams, many of them new.

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Sponge genome. Evol. Dev. 12: 601–617. Franzén, Å. 1987. Spermatogenesis. In A.C. Giese, J.S. Pearse and V.B. Pearse (eds): Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Vol. 9, pp. 1–47. Blackwell/Boxwood, Pacific Grove, CA. Galliot, B., Quiquand, M., Ghila, L., et al. 2009. Origins of neurogenesis, a cnidarian view. Dev. Biol. 332: 2–24. Haeckel, E. 1866. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. 2 vols. Georg Reimer, Berlin. Haeckel, E. 1874. Die Gastraea-Theorie, die phylogenetische Classification des.

And the activity of proto- and metatroch is regulated by these nerves (Braubach et al. 2006). Pleural, parietal, and visceral ganglia differentiate along a paired lateral nerve cord, probably guided by the axons from the pioneer cells. connectives develop between the parietal, visceral, and pedal ganglia. In fact, the nervous system of the trochophore of Mytilus resembles that of a metatrochophore of an annelid. Hox2-5 genes are expressed sequentially in the pedal, pleural, oesophageal, and.

Cells situated near the margin of the body contain RFamide (Schuchert 1993), which is characteristic of nerve cells in eumetazoans (Chapter 12), but the cells have not been identified by transmission electron microscopy. A PaxB gene is expressed in the same region; it appears to be basal to a number of Pax genes and indicates the position of Trichoplax as sister group to the neuralians (Hadrys et al. 2005). Cells with Hox/ Parahox gene activity, regulating growth and fission, are located around.

Cells situated near the margin of the body contain RFamide (Schuchert 1993), which is characteristic of nerve cells in eumetazoans (Chapter 12), but the cells have not been identified by transmission electron microscopy. A PaxB gene is expressed in the same region; it appears to be basal to a number of Pax genes and indicates the position of Trichoplax as sister group to the neuralians (Hadrys et al. 2005). Cells with Hox/ Parahox gene activity, regulating growth and fission, are located around.

Usually regarded as very specialized annelids (Rieger 1980, 1981, 1988, 1991b; Smith et al. 1986). They resemble small turbellarians and some of the interstitial polychaetes. The ultrastructure shows no sign of segmentation of the mesoderm or of coelomic cavities; 115 tentacle mouth photorecepotor apical ganglion prototroch gut tentacle bud mouth protonephridium tentacle gastrotroch chaetae prototroch ventral ganglia mouth gut opisthosomal chaetae gut telotroch chaetae Ridgeia.

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